Cataract (Motia Bind) in Eye disease

A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light.

Facts about cataract (motia bind)

  • Cataract (motia bind) is opacification of natural lens
  • Mostly in old age, but can develop at any age even in a newborn
  • Our natural lens has three layers like a mango, outer most skin is called capsule than there is a pulp like cortex and innermost is hard like the seed—called nucleus
  • Cataract can be due to opacities in any of these layers
  • These days latest mode of cataract treatment is by Phacoemulsification
  • In Phacoemulsification, a round opening is made in the anterior capsule of the lens and then cortex and nucleus is aspirated out through a small needle of phaco machine after breaking them into very small pieces using ultrasonic energy
  • In Phacoemulsification it is the ultrasonic energy which is used, not laser energy as is commonly thought by layman
  • Cataract surgery is a painless procedure. It is done under local anesthesia. Sometime local anesthesia is given by injecting anesthetic medicine by a fine needle in the orbit (peribulbar or retro bulbar anesthesia) but now more and more surgeries are being done just after putting eye drop i.e. topical anesthesia( no injection cataract surgery!!!!!). Decision regarding type of anesthesia is taken by the surgeon depending on the patient and it varies from patient to patient
  • Phacoemulsification is, most of the time, a suture less surgery as the cut which we make for surgery is self sealing by a valve action, but in some cases if there is leakage than we do put sutures. Sometime we need to convert the procedure to standard extra capsular technique-in that case sutures are placed on the surgical cut. In case of suturing, most of the time sutures are not removed. Though Phacoemulsification is a suture less surgery but sometime one or two sutures may be required for the benefit of patient
  • After surgery intraocular artificial lens is implanted in eye. There are two major types of IOL. One type is hard or non foldable variety and other type is of foldable lenses. Foldable IOL are preferred lenses. In foldable lenses also there are two main varieties i.e. monofocal and multifocal lenses. Multifocal lenses are still evolving, they promise to give correction for both near and distance but patient response is variable. Monofocal lens are also of two types. Among monofocal lenses aspheric lenses are the latest
  • After surgery patient may experience mild pain, watering, irritation, redness etc. these are normal and improve over next few days
  • As eye is like a digital camera hence ultimate picture quality is dependent on type of lens, health of your retina (photographic sensor screen) and cornea (outer lens)
  • Visual prognosis is generally good after this surgery, but some conditions are associated with guarded visual prognosis: diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, retinal problems, macular problems, optic neuropathies, high myopia, corneal scars, Amblyopia etc
  • In few cases Phacoemulsification is not safe, and then also decision is taken in favour of large incision standard extra capsular cataract extraction. In these cases we might require to put the sutures
  • It is a very safe procedure but like any other surgical procedure it also has chances of certain complications although frequency is low. Common complications are rupture of posterior capsule, nucleus drop in posterior chamber, iris trauma, corneal decompensation, infections etc
  • Post operative infection is rare but serious problem. Though all precautions are taken to avoid this complication, it may happen in very few cases. If it happens, patient experiences severe pain, swelling, fall in vision, redness etc. therefore any untoward symptoms should be reported to the surgeon immediately
  • In case of complication sometime we need to take the help of vitreo-retinal surgeon, in those cases you may be referred to a vitreo-retinal surgeon. Total loss of vision is rare but is a known complication of cataract surgery. In certain situation surgeon may not be able to put lens in the operated eye
  • IOL power calculation is not foolproof, hence post operative refractive surprises are seen and patient may require glasses after surgery. Near glasses are prescribed after surgery but in majority of cases even distance glasses are required
  • You will be prescribed glasses one month after surgery
  • You have to follow your doctor's post operative instructions strictly
  • Inform your doctor immediately in case of increased redness of operated eye, sudden decrease in vision, severe pain in eyes or any other unexpected new development in the operated eye
  • Avoid rubbing of operated eyes
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